There are several steps in the brewing process, which may include malting, mashing, lautering, boiling, fermenting, conditioning, filtering, and packaging. Continue reading
Hops are the female flower clusters or seed cones of the hop vine Humulus lupulus, which are used as a flavouring and preservative agent in nearly all beer made today. Hops had been used for medicinal and food flavouring purposes since Roman times; by the 7th century in Carolingian monasteries in what is now Germany, beer was being made with hops, though it isn’t until the thirteenth century that widespread cultivation of hops for use in beer is recorded. Continue reading
After the whirlpool, the wort must be brought down to fermentation temperatures (20–26°Celsius) before yeast is added. In modern breweries this is achieved through a plate heat exchanger. A plate heat exchanger has many ridged plates, which form two separate paths. Continue reading
Early Western travelers, whether to Persia, Turkey, India, or China, would frequently remark on the absence of change in fashion there. Observers from these other cultures commented on the unseemly pace of Western fashion, which many felt suggested an instability and a lack of order in Western culture. Continue reading
Germany is one of the leading countries in the fashion industry, along with France, Italy, the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, Japan and China. German fashion is famed for its elegant lines, unconventional young designs, and the great variety of styles. Continue reading
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together (felt).
The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Continue reading